The following abstracts have been submitted for consideration for the 2014 Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA. The final program will consist of approximately 100 tracks.
(PS-1502) Lean Scheduling In A Construction Environment
Primary Author: Mr Bruce M Cohoon Turner Construction Co
Abstract: The description of the processes, procedures, and expected outcome of applying Lean principles to the planning, scheduling, reporting and analysis of Construction schedules shall include the following topics:
(PS-1521) The Care and Feeding of P6 Databases, Part 2
Primary Author: Mr Ronald M Winter PSP Ron Winter Consulting LLC
Abstract: Who would have guessed that so many people were interested in Oracle/Primavera P6 databases? Perhaps it has something to do with keeping their business running. Small company, P6 stand-alone installations suffer from the poor training of their IT personnel (i.e. You.) Whatever the motivation, we present a continuation of our series on fixing and improving your databases for P6 stand-alone users.
This paper covers the topics of re-connecting to the P6 database, resetting passwords, unlocking Oracle databases, recovering from full databases, migrating entire databases, fixing failure to run Background Services, and improving P6 performance. It is presented by a person who is not in the business of selling IT services (so how good can it be?) Come and find out if this is finally the topic that is bigger this author can handle.
(PS-1548) Integrated Scheduling for Non-Schedulers
Primary Author: Mr Brandon Atkins Henkels & McCoy
Abstract: Many papers have been written on the technical aspects of scheduling including the theory, methodologies, best practices and delay analysis. While these topics are valuable for schedule professionals to perfect their craft, the project schedule is a tool that has value to the entire project team including construction project managers, estimators, cost professionals and field supervision. Each team member should understand how their input or lack thereof can affect the schedule model and how the schedule can be used as a communication and decision-making tool from initiation to execution.
This paper stems from the authors experiences as a contractor, engineer, owners representative, consultant and full-time scheduler and intends to be a non-technical overview for non-schedulers. The aim is to present the value of the schedule to the entire project team, the role each member can play in its development and maintenance, and address common misperceptions about what the schedule can and cannot do. One use of this overview could be to educate team members in a common vocabulary prior to an integrated planning session.
(PS-1585) Road Map to Success through Proper Scheduling
Primary Author: Dr Firas Abou-Zaki CCP EVP PSP Altus Group
Abstract: The project schedule is the project managers road map to provide information regarding the projects timeline, and to execute the projects controls, in measuring/controlling progress and costs. It is necessary that the project schedule be developed as early as possible to ensure that the roadmap is in place to manage each phase/section/construction package/s of the project. In my technical paper and presentation, I will contribute to the best road map for proper scheduling on any project by illustrating the importance of early planning management, proper packaging into subprojects, followed by the processes of controlling project packages from Initiation to each and every engineering, procurement, construction, startup works, till projects closing. The use of subprojects within a master project schedule allows management to direct the emphasis to the phase where a majority of the work is progressing. This allows project management to direct engineering activity/stakeholders deliverables to support the construction, procurement to support construction and construction to support to startup and commissioning of the facility. The ability to manage the project phase in a fast track environment is the key to achieving the projects schedule goals, which will be the conclusion process of the road map to success through proper scheduling.
(PS-1586) Profit Optimization of Linear Construction Projects in Extreme Weather Regions
Primary Author: Dr Ahmed Senouci Qatar University
Co-author(s): Dr Saleh Altayeb Mubarak Qatar University
Abstract: Linear construction projects are characterized by repetitive activities. Examples of such construction projects include highways, tunnels, railways, pipeline networks, high-rise buildings, and housing development projects. Extreme weather reduces workers' productivity, which may be a source for construction delays, additional costs, and lower profits. To maximize the profitability of construction projects, construction planners need to analyze and optimize project resource utilization decisions taking into account the impact of extreme weather conditions. These decisions, which include choosing the projects starting date and the resource utilization of the project activities, will ultimately determine the time, cost, and profit of the construction project. The paper presents a mathematical model that maximizes the profit of linear construction projects in extreme weather regions. The paper discusses the model formulation and implementation. An illustrative construction project is presented to demonstrate the use of the model and its capabilities in generating optimized profit schedules for linear construction projects under extreme weather conditions.
(PS-1595) Baseline Schedule Submittals
Primary Author: Mr Ronald M Winter PSP Ron Winter Consulting LLC
Abstract: Building and reaching agreement on the initial Baseline Schedule is a monumental process that sometimes seems to be bigger than the project itself. Reaching agreement to use a particular schedule is often difficult, frequently requiring negotiation and perseverance. The successful completion of this process is the hallmark of a good scheduler using the correct process.
A lack of timely agreement on the acceptance of a Baseline Schedule can result in confusion, disagreements, loss of productivity, extra work, and unresolvable issues that will lead to legal claims afterward. Failure to reach timely agreement on the acceptance of the Baseline Schedule is a clear sign the project is in danger of failure.
This paper presents the efforts of the Planning & Scheduling Subcommittee to compile recommended practices in the proper methods to create and approve Baseline Schedules.
(PS-1596) Analysis of WorkFace Planning on Civil Construction Projects
Primary Author: Mr Pranab Kumar Deb PMP PSP Voice Construction Limited
Co-author(s): Ms Julie K Owen CCP PSP Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Abstract: WorkFace Planning is a concept that was adopted by the Construction Owners Association of Alberta (COAA) in Canada. COAA performed a study in 2004 to ascertain the root cause of cost overruns on heavy industrial construction projects. The study attributed insufficient planning as a primary cause for cost overruns in projects valued over $300 million. This resulted in development of a best practice for construction planning on mega projects termed WorkFace Planning. The concept is defined as getting the right things to the right people at the right time. This serves to improve productivity by removing down time in the construction process and saves money.
This paper will examine the history of workface planning and provide examples of projects where workface planning was implemented. Benefits and challenges associated with workface planning on different sized projects will be analyzed and recommendations offered regarding effective implementation.
(PS-1597) Construction Progress Measurement Tool for Small Projects
Primary Author: Mr Syd Daneshyar SNC Lavalin
Co-author(s): Mr Peter Walker SNC-Lavalin
Abstract: There are different methods and techniques to measure the construction progress which are being used for projects of different sizes. The construction progress can be measured with different tools for small projects where there is less complexity and inadequate project controls budget. The combination of resource loaded level three construction schedule and Excel spreadsheets have been used successfully for projects under $50M. Using this method, direct man-hours from the master control budget have been loaded into the predefined resource breakdown structure by commodities in Primavera. The agreed upon rules of credit assigned to each activity under activity steps to measure the physical progress of each activity. The planned and updated schedule exported into Excel spreadsheets through a customized report in Primavera. Finally, the construction progress report by project and area are generated using graphical and tabular reports using visual basic programming.
(PS-1604) Lean Construction Planning Implementation
Primary Author: Ms Hannah E Schumacher PSP FDI Planning Consultants
Co-author(s): Ms Donna J Nardella PE EVP PSP Suffolk Construction
Abstract: Lean Construction Planning is an upcoming trend in the construction industry driven by Owner demands for more reliable project completions. Now Contractors and Subcontractors are finding that these Lean processes eliminate waste, achieve a more stable work flow and subsequently gain higher productivity and improved construction quality. What is Lean Construction? What is Pull Planning and how can it be implemented in conjunction with the CPM schedule to make planning and building construction projects more efficient? What are the inherent challenges and risks? How do these processes tie into AACE Internationals Basic Total Cost Management (TCM) Process Model Plan, Do, Check, Assess (PDCA)? In this paper, the authors will answer these questions and discuss the implementation of Lean Construction Planning from both the Owners and Contractors perspectives They will describe the processes as they relate to planning and scheduling as well as lessons learned and suggested solutions in the implementation of these principles in the construction industry.
(PS-1616) Lessons Learned - Schedule Communication using P6
Primary Author: Mr Charlie Jackson PSP Hill International, Inc.
Co-author(s): Ms Hannah E Schumacher PSP FDI Planning Consultants
Abstract: In order for any schedule to be an effective and useful management tool, the schedule must be communicated in the appropriate format to each of the various project stakeholders. If the Contract Documents require the use of Primavera P6, it is important for the Scheduler to understand how to use the various P6 graphical and tabular tools in order to tailor the format to meet each stakeholders needs and requirements.
This paper will identify common scheduling specification requirements, as well as field requirements, for communicating project data and discuss how to use the tools available in Primavera P6 to meet these requirements. The Scheduler should be able to apply the Lessons Learned outlined in this paper to effectively and efficiently create reports and layouts to communicate the schedule.
(PS-1617) Origin, Theory and Application of the T-week Scheduling Process
Primary Author: Mr Jared M. Neumeier PSP Battelle Energy Alliance
Abstract: All across the United States there exists large, aging, government funded operating facilities where maintaining the structures in operating order is critical to their success a success that requires significant integrated scheduling effort to achieve. A legacy problem for these facilities, that are heavily controlled by red tape and federal reporting regulations, is creating approved work package for maintenance personnel that maximizes "wrench time" and minimizes time lost in work package fixes and coordination that should occur long before valuable resources waste significant work time. The T-week scheduling method was devised in 2004 by the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) as an integrated response to address the issue. This method is a structured approach to scheduling maintenance and forces structure and ownership into the scheduling process long before work package are expected to be released. This paper describes the background, the method and some potential real world applications of the T-week process, specifically, how its core principles may be applied to other forms of scheduling and Project Management.
(PS-1627) Can you have accurate P6 schedules without P6?
Primary Author: Mr Ronald M Winter PSP Ron Winter Consulting LLC
Co-author(s): Mr Faik Burak Evrenosoglu PE CCP PSP
Abstract: Primavera scheduling software (P6) has been a popular tool to develop, maintain and analyze project schedules. When it comes to large commercial projects, P6 is King. Many contractors say that they are not interested in learning about competing CPM software products because their contracts require that they use P6.
Most contracts only require that the contractor submit their schedules in P6s proprietary XER file format. This format is specified so that the owners copies of P6 can import and read them without errors. Does that mean that contractors are required to actually use P6? What software you use may not matter if you cannot tell the difference in outputs.
Some companies claim that their software reads and writes P6-formatted XER files. How good is that translation? Can alternative software create and modify schedules that exactly match those using P6? Two recognized CPM scheduling software experts took up the challenge and put two P6 alternatives through their paces. Find out the results when they revel if other software can be used in place of P6 Professional on projects requiring its use.
(PS-1642) Successful Use of Priority-Driven Resource Leveling in P6
Primary Author: Mr Greg M Hall Peter Kiewit Sons' Inc
Abstract: Using real-life examples, this paper outlines the use of resource leveling to make a self-healing CPM schedule that enhances, rather than reduces, managements involvement in making key resource deployment decisions.
While accounting for resource limitations on a project is universally accepted, this is usually done by adding relationships. The resource leveling tool in P6 is voodoo to most schedulers due to inexperienced schedulers misuse of the tool P6s lesser functionality compared to P3 and the inability of popular schedule analyzing tools to deal with the resulting phantom float phenomenon. Some have even asserted that a leveled schedule is not truly CPM.
But scheduling is not an objective in itself rather, it must support operations by building the best electronic model of reality. From this paper, the reader will be armed with how to use P6 as a powerful tool taking full advantage of resource leveling how to show the longest path through a leveled schedule and how to quickly make a full logic copy of a leveled schedule with accurate float values.
(PS-1660) Is CPM Scheduling a Problem - Have We Forgotten The Process?
Primary Author: Mr Robert Marshall Freas Exponent
Co-author(s): Mr Ketan S Tipnis Exponent
Abstract: Ten years ago, ENR reported that CPM experts saw badly flawed or deliberately deceptive schedules that look good but lack mathematical coherence or common sense. Today, experts are still in disagreement regarding the value and effectiveness of CPM scheduling as a useful management tool. Critics are focused on the tool itself and sometimes the scheduler. However, if you fixed both of these alleged problems, the criticisms would still exist. Why, because for most cases, the gun has been pointed at the wrong suspect. Planning and scheduling go hand-in-hand. Without effective results from both, its difficult to have overall success. The collaboration and planning efforts on most projects are severely limited. This leads to poor communications amongst the project stakeholders and bad input to the scheduler. Collaborative and planning processes, such as Lean Project Delivery and Last Planner, can improve the planning process, which in turn, improves the effectiveness of CPM schedule. This paper will explore these and other management collaboration and planning tools to show how value can be added by the implementation of such.
(PS-1682) Schedule to Communicate: The Storytelling Paradigm
Primary Author: Mr Charles Wythe Dunn Jr Duke Energy
Abstract: A schedule should function as a compelling communication tool. From bid proposals to field implementation to management review, there are effective ways to present scheduling logic and results. This paper provides recommended scheduling practices in the framework of narrative storytelling principles. The author draws on personal experience and case studies from his work in aerospace, construction, energy, and technology scheduling.
Narrative principles that help build schedules to communicate include: storyboard the big ideas, define your characters, relationships are important, follow the money, know your audience, and always tell the simple version of the truth. The author provides specific examples of each principle, and covers Primavera P6 pointers and pitfalls along the way. In addition, the author will present schedule reports and graphics from P6 (with emphasis on the new P6 Visualizer) Synchro, Excel, Project, and Visio to illustrate the axiom that a picture can tell 1,000 words.
This storytelling paradigm for schedule development illustrates good scheduling practice, highlights scheduling problem areas, and makes it memorable.
(PS-1709) Thriving and Complying with USACE Scheduling Specification
Primary Author: Ms Carmelita Thorndike PSP Scheduling Consultants
Co-author(s): Ms Kylee Lynn Samuels Scheduling Consultants, Ltd.
Abstract: Government scheduling specifications are rigorous. When contractors dont comply with them, the results can be devastating. This paper will exclusively talk about working with the USACE scheduling specification. The two authors have a combined experience scheduling over $2 billion in government projects. This paper will not go into specifics about one particular project, but use the combined experience of the authors to discuss and suggest best practices when a scheduler is working on a USACE construction project. This paper will dissect the current USACE scheduling specification by clause and disclose the authors lessons learned as well as the gotchas that any scheduler working in this type of contract needs to be aware of.
(PS-1720) Implementation of an Effective Shadow Schedule
Primary Author: Mr Hector Arias Arcadis
Co-author(s): Mr Efe Eray Tuncay ARCADIS; Mr Alberto Martinez ARCADIS
Abstract: As Construction Schedulers for a major capital budget program within the City of Los Angeles agency we have found that the practice and implementation of a CM Shadow Schedule is advantageous to all parties involved. The purpose of the paper is to illustrate the efficiency of a Shadow Schedule that mimics the approved baseline and monthly updates but takes into account the contemporaneous field activities that provide a more precise project completion. The paper will define the function, benefits, and field examples of its usefulness. It will also discuss and provide on the field examples on how the implementation of the schedule has aided in the resolution of construction disputes and potential claims.
(PS-1731) What Every Scheduler Should Know About Contracts
Primary Author: Mr Ronald K Grant R Grant Consulting, LLC
Co-author(s): Mr Kenneth Roberts Schiff Hardin, LLP
Abstract: Long gone are the days a Scheduler was simply expected to track actual dates, establish percentages of completion and forecast the dates for the remaining efforts. In todays environment schedules are often the basis of numerous contractual benchmarks and risk assessment tools, as well as, potentially the center piece of evidence in a future contract disputes with any number of the parties. To be successful in this demanding environment of complex contracts, it is crucial a Scheduler have a comprehensive understanding of numerous contract terms as they relate to the project schedule and grasp how execution of their work assignment can have significant rewards and consequences far beyond the day to day operations. This paper will explore common areas of contract provisions and uses as they relate to scheduling and project controls, providing insights and strategies on how to successfully deal with these provisions in the present as well as the future.
(PS-1734) Evaluation of Baseline Schedule Metrics for Successful Project Schedule Performance
Primary Author: Mr Jin Ouk Choi The University of Texas at Austin
Co-author(s): Mr Anthony J Gonzales Spire Consulting Group LLC
Abstract: The development of a reasonable baseline schedule is a challenge for some construction professionals. Some construction projects experience schedule impacts or delays as a result of fatally flawed baseline schedules that produce an unreasonable forecasted completion. Accordingly, some organizations, public entities, private firms, software companies and consultants have developed checklists or guidelines for evaluating the mechanics of baseline schedules in order to improve the likelihood of forecasting a reasonable completion date. However, these guidelines have not been substantiated. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate a list of industry recognized metrics to determine if a schedule is fatally flawed or a reasonable forecast.
Typically, when the baseline schedule is reasonable, there is less chance for schedule overrun. Accordingly, this paper addressed the correlation between current Industry Metrics and developing a reasonable schedule. Furthermore, the findings were addressed after evaluating 30 current Industry Metrics against completed project schedules within the commercial sector. Based on the analysis, observations were documented on the correlation between a reasonable baseline schedule and performance.
(PS-1738) Considerating Trends Derived from Past Performance
Primary Author: Dr Fredric L. Plotnick PE Engineering & Property Management Consultants Inc
Abstract: CPM is an acronym to describe a pure logic network to model the anticipated work to be performed on a project, and calculations to derive a schedule of the activities of that project as well as determination of the earliest date that the project may be anticipated to finish. A standard CPM initially forecasts the possible schedule of early and late dates of specific activities so to complete a project in the earliest time or perhaps by a specified deadline. A standard CPM update will again forecast the possible schedule based upon recorded actual performance up until the Data Date.
An axiom of traditional and current CPM practice and software is to utilize past performance data (including actual starts, finishes, and estimates of remaining duration for work in progress) but does not permit or otherwise utilize past performance or productivity to amend the estimate of duration for work not yet started.
It is the purpose of this paper to investigate and discuss the ramifications of using past performance to modify the previously estimated original durations of future work in an attempt to provide a better forecast of future performance and schedule.
(PS-1739) Revisiting Retained Logic, Progress Override, and a New Thrid Way
Primary Author: Dr Fredric L. Plotnick PE Engineering & Property Management Consultants Inc
Abstract: Revisiting Retained Logic, Progress Override, and a to-be-preferred third way,Modified Out-of-Sequence Algorithm
The alternate algorithms of retained logic and progress override were developed to be utilized on the original ADM (arrow diagramming method) format for CPM. It was understood by initial developers that neither choice was correct but merely set options to be overly pessimistic or optimistic. Improvements in computers enabling solution of PDM (precedence diagramming method) logic networks implemented only these choices without regard to other aspects of the PDM format.
A solution avoiding either bias is posited in this paper, and is called by the author a Modified Out-of-Sequence Algorithm. While both retained logic and progress override algorithms involve use of the traditional finish-to-start form of restraint, the modified out-of-sequence algorithm also utilizes a finish-to-finish form of restraint. The protocol was first suggested by the author in 2004 and published in 2005 (and 2010) in CPM in Construction Management, 6th and 7th editions.
(PS-1752) Recovery Schedules and Acceleration: Two Cases Studies
Primary Author: Mr Joseph Hellenbrand PSP Capital Project Management, Inc.
Abstract: When schedule delays impact important contract milestones beyond key deadlines a recovery schedule may be the only chance a project has to achieve those milestones. This paper will explore lessons learned from two projects that were significantly delayed and used recovery schedules to achieve project success. This paper will also discuss guidelines from the AACEI Recommended Practice RP-54-07, Recovery Scheduling As Applied in Engineering, Procurement, and Construction. Recovery schedules are more than blindly adding resources and working additional hours. Essential to recovery schedule success is the decision by project stakeholders to revise the definition of project success as accomplishing only the most important project goals. The recovery schedule is then developed by revising the original schedule logic to allow for additional resources to work concurrently. The use of targeted overtime for critical and near critical activities, as defined by updates of the recovery schedule, is another important recovery tool. The recovery schedule is also used to warn against any future owner responsible activities (i.e. shop drawing approvals, permits, inspections) that could impact the accelerated project.