The following abstracts have been submitted for consideration for the 2014 Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA. The final program will consist of approximately 100 tracks.
(PM-1492) Vital Signs of a Healthy Project Management Environment
Primary Author: Dr Vittal S. Anantatmula Western Carolina University
Co-author(s): Dr Parviz F Rad PE CCP Project Management Excellence
Abstract: Project management sophistication is the state of enterprise practices in which success of projects is predictable and that the definitive measure of project management success continually improves with time. Conducting a full assessment of the organizational project management sophistication is relatively time consuming and costly. Thus, many organizations have a need and desire for instruments that would provide a rough estimate of the project management maturity of the organization without a major expenditure of funds. When a rough and informal estimate of the organizational maturity is required, organizational maturity can be extrapolated or inferred from the involvement of PMO in organizational project management, from team maturity, from sophistication of the metrics system, or even from the success rates of a select group of project managers. This paper includes several instruments that should help in that regard.
(PM-1505) Are your project progress goals attainable?
Primary Author: Mr David M Senko Fluor Enterprises, Inc.
Abstract: Every project has an end date for which the scope of work is usually broken down into quantities necessary to install for maintaining the project schedule. To often I have seen installed quantities established as incremental goals when actually they are the result of activities, a scorecard so to speak. This paper highlights the simple concept of developing actionable goals to support the installation of the necessary quantities to support the project parameters. Like the score of a football game, the installed quantities are a result. Your project team had better develop the necessary and quantifiable actions to control in order to achieve the intended result.
(PM-1514) Challenges of Building a World Cup stadium in the Amazon
Primary Author: Mr Aldo D. Mattos CCP Aldo Mattos Consulting
Co-author(s): Mr Carlos Henrique Dos Reis Lima Construtora Andrade Gutierrez. S.A.; Mr Glaucia R. Alves Andrade Gutierrez; Mr Jose G. Fernandes Andrade Gutierrez
Abstract: Upon showing the difficulties of working in an environment of complicate logistics and under extreme temperatures combined with high relative humidity of air and continuous rainfall, the authors approach the advanced cost engineering concepts employed by the general contractor to ensure satisfactory production rates and to meet the original tight schedule. Scope changes imposed by FIFA during the construction period such as adherence to LEED energy efficiency requirements and adoption of new visibility parameters , and many change orders arisen due to poor preliminary design forced the contractor to resort to a state-of-the-art method of measuring and improving productivities based on lean construction philosophy, as well as 4D BIM technology, to monitor the progress of job.
(PM-1519) Process Plants Projects Delays:Investigation on the Root Causes
Primary Author: Dr Mohanad Arif El-Zayyat Ph.D Skema Business School
Abstract: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) covers six countries (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman and United Arab Emirates). Those countries are considered rich places of process plants projects in downstream sector. Over the period from 2005 to 2009, the investments in process plant projects in downstream sector are significantly booming and higher than other sectors. Booming from $20 to $100 Billion, several works in large petroleum operators conducted by Schroeder and Jackson (2007) they concluded that the rate of major project failure of cost overruns is over 20 percentages major schedule delay is over 20 percentages and poor plant operability after start-up is over 30 percentages. Yet most large projects experience substantial cost and schedules overrun (Lyneis et al., 2001). Ahuja, et al., (1994) argues that project delay is considered a major cause of construction claims.
This research highlights main root causes of delays in specific geographic area in the Middle East identify them, categorize them, rank them, test the hypothesis, and study the cause and effect relationship effect between each identified root cause.
(PM-1525) Systems Engineering Methods Applied to Megaprojects: A Critique
Primary Author: Mr Calvin J Speight Jr CCP Booz Allen Hamilton
Abstract: Systems Engineering (SE) is a discipline which helps manage complexity and improve the technical quality of engineered products. By comparison, project management (PM) can involve five steps that includes, initiating, planning, executing, monitoring & controlling, and closing. Because each step involves processes, one can think of PM as a system of processes. Moreover, both PM and SE possess iterative processes that converge for delivering project goals. However, complex infrastructure projects may require a systemic approach that goes beyond the management of cost and schedules. This paper intends to provide an analysis of INCOSEs Guide for the Application of Systems Engineering in Large Infrastructure Projects. The author will critique three key areas. First, author will examine the case for applying SE practices to large infrastructure projects, or LIPs during the planning and construction management phase. Second, an LIP will be analyzed from a systems viewpoint to establish concepts. Finally, the application of SE practices can be beneficially used to better execute the construction process will be addressed.
(PM-1534) Comparative Analysis of Build-Operate-Transfer Infrastructure Projects in Mexico
Primary Author: Dr Carla Lopez del Puerto CCP Colorado State University
Abstract: The demand to deliver large public infrastructure projects in worldwide combined with the insufficiency of public funding available for transportation projects has led governments to explore alternatives for project delivery and finance. The Build-operate-transfer (BOT) project delivery contracting method has become a popular alternative to increase Mexicos infrastructure without the need for public funds. In BOT private owners finance and build infrastructure projects and operate them for a number of years, as toll roads, to recuperate their investment. This paper compares two highway projects that were built in Mexico using BOT. The first project was built in the 1990s during a period when Mexicos procuring policies stipulated that the concession be awarded to the bidder offering the shortest concession period, the second project was built in the 2000s when Mexicos procuring policies were modified to allow a fixed term concession period of up to 30 years. The paper concludes that fixed term concession periods are needed to avoid prohibitively high tariffs that result in lower traffic flows than projected and leed to concessionaires financial difficulties.
(PM-1555) IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING IN NIGERIA: An innovation action research approach
Primary Author: Mr Oluseyi Eseoghene Michael-Ubini BSc(Hons) Chevron Nigeria Limited
Abstract: This paper reviews the importance as well as challenges of Activity-Based Costing (ABC) in the Oil & Gas Industry in Nigeria.
The scope of this work centers on implementation of the ABC for cost management and reporting in Oil & Gas industry in Nigeria, the importance and various challenges. Research on Activity-Based Costing and its applications has mainly been focused on organizations in developed countries. Little has been learnt as to whether ABC techniques can be implemented successfully in organizations in developing countries. While this study discusses the innovative action approach to the implementation of ABC, it also reveals a different insight of internal resistance to change. In order to improve the effectiveness of the ABC an integrated approach that combines ABC with business process modeling and analytical hierarchy approach is proposed. It is figured out that the proposed approach is quite effective in costing services of the Oil & Gas Company compared to the existing traditional costing system which is in use.
(PM-1635) Quality Management Approaches for Alternative Project Delivery Methods
Primary Author: Mr Ghada M Gad Bowling Green State University
Co-author(s): Dr Douglas D Gransberg PE FRICS CCP Iowa State University
Abstract: During the 1990s, the transportation industry began experimenting with various forms of alternative project delivery that offer time and cost savings. The salient question, though, has been to determine if quality is degraded through either the speed at which the project had to be completed or by the agencys loss of control over the process. Decisions made in the projects conceptual phase create impacts that may not be evident until many years after the completed project has been in operation. The aim of this paper is to determine if owners have changed the way they utilize alternative project delivery methods (PDM) for better quality management. This research involved conducting a content analysis of 30 RFPs and RFQs of projects utilizing alternative PDMs and comparing them to a study conducted in 2004. The study conclusions indicate that there is a noticeable shift in how owners were viewing the designer-of-records professional qualifications as a means that will automatically bring design quality ten years ago. Owners are relying more on specifications and specified programs to assure quality.
(PM-1671) Megaprojects: Insights for not losing billions of dollars
Primary Author: Mr Rafael Gonalves Monteiro Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Consulting
Co-author(s): Mr Thiago Henriqe Rezende Medeiros Vale
Abstract: A Capital Project has, by its intrinsic nature, a complex environment where plenty of deliverables and expectations ought to be achieved. However, data has been shown that Capital Projects, especially Mega Capital Projects, defined here with CapEx bigger than US$ 500 million, fail so often. Governments and entrepreneurs crave to know which are the key strategies to deliver a successful Megaproject. Despite the fact that, most probably, there is no ultimate answer to this intriguing question, a wide range of tools and techniques have been developed throughout the years, for instance the established FEL methodology. This paper explores a case study showing that a disciplined and effortful conduction of a project is so important as its planning phase. In addition, an attempt to correlate FEL index (maturity of a project at go/no-go gate) and Disciplined Execution with CapEx deviation is performed. Finally, it is presented an example showing how disastrous and value destroyer a mal-planned and executed project can be.
(PM-1674) Project Controls Support to Project Management and Strategic Decision Making
Primary Author: Dr Mohamed E El-Mehalawi FaithfulGould
Abstract: Using project controls successfully enables us of informing project management of where the project is and where the project is going in the future. Current project controls technologies are capable of supporting strategic decision-making on the level of a mega project or a set of concurrent projects. Cost controls, scheduling, risk management, and knowledge management are the elements of project controls used to support both strategic management and project management. The assessment of the performances of general contractors and subcontractors determine the impact on project objectives. Cost and schedule risk analyses, schedule acceleration, and accurate forecast are a few examples that support strategic planning and decision-making for mega projects. Moving project controls from individual projects into enterprise systems allows the organization to manage the whole portfolio of projects. That leads to supporting strategic decision-making on management of capital, project selection and resource optimization. The paper explains the kinds of project controls information and the level of details that would be needed to support both strategic management and project management.
(PM-1699) Accelerating Change Management with Integrated Project Controls Data Management
Primary Author: Mr Erich Wolf CCP Sapere Consulting, Inc.
Abstract: This paper will provide a review of the development, implementation, and results of an integrated project controls data management system. This system has been implemented for current clients with a combined portfolio value exceeding $500 million. Use of the integrated system has accelerated change management issue identification and decision making by at least one month and reduced variances by over 10%.
Development of the system will be described in detail: corporate needs definition (i.e., mapping integrated business processes, definition of performance metrics, and a review of corporate culture), system stand-up, and data population and maintenance (i.e., data hosting structure, data quality, configuration control, and regular analyses). Recommended changes to client processes are tailored to fit with the individual organizational cultures while accelerating the flow of data into the system. System outputs are set up to match business process needs allowing access to preconditioned data.
Commonly encountered challenges to system implementation will be discussed as lessons learned and opportunities for improved future applications.
(PM-1708) Benefits of Independent Oversight in Large Capital Project
Primary Author: Mr Ronald K Grant R Grant Consulting, LLC
Co-author(s): Mr Kenneth Roberts Schiff Hardin, LLP
Abstract: Large Capital Projects involve complex execution plans and countless decisions. Some projects end well while others seem to be plagued with problems and issues leading to significant unplanned delays and cost over-runs. Not surprisingly, the difference between these extremes can be traced to the how quickly and efficiently the various participants identify risks and the process used to deal with these risks. Owners, Contractors, Engineers, and Suppliers each bring their own bias when identifying risk and making project decisions, which influence the outcome of a projects success. Independent Oversights primary mission is to enhance a projects organizational efficiency and transparency, assure effective decision processes are used, and by doing so maneuvering a project to its best possible outcome. Free from participant bias, the Independent Oversight team identifies risks, challenges participants with alternative considerations, facilitate the decision making process in key areas, as well as being an independent source of status reporting. This paper will identify a typical Independent oversight team organization, areas of focus, as well as many of the common challenges and benefits gained.
(PM-1743) Post Occupancy Evaluation of LEED Buildings as a Project Controls Function
Primary Author: Ms Nakisa Alborz Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Abstract: Due to heightened requests for sustainable projects, the number of LEED certified buildings is on the rise nationwide (US) and globally. The new LEED minimum requirements include reporting of water and energy consumption for 5-years post occupancy. From this new requirement, it is evident post occupancy evaluations (POEs) are gaining momentum however, simply reporting water and energy is not sufficient to obtain the performance behavior of a building. Although occupant feedback is not part of LEED requirements, findings from such efforts can reduce building life cycle costs and render buildings more sustainable in practice. This information is especially invaluable to building owners who seek LEED certification, and operate and maintain their buildings.
This paper discusses why POEs should be added to project controls functions, and how they can be carried out. Focus is also placed on the methodology used in the development of a POE indicator framework for LEED certified dormitories, and methods of indicator data collection and analysis. Several case studies are discussed providing practical guidance for project controls professionals to carry out POEs.
(PM-1744) Todays Buzz Word - Optimism Bias
Primary Author: Mr J. Michael Devine CCP Project Time & Cost
Abstract: Many recent articles and studies support the belief that most large or mega projects consistently overrun cost and schedule due to optimism bias.
While many projects can be doomed to failure because of poor initial cost estimates, schedules, and the lack of proper consideration for risk, these are only some aspects. Also, some are inclined to believe that the facts regarding a projects time, cost, and true risk are simply hidden in order to get initial approval to carry the project forward. Additionally, given todays greatly improved engineering, technical, and manufacturing capabilities, many first of its kind, or one-off projects, are being pursued so there are fewer benchmarks to use during planning. I however propose, based upon my experience, that there is another viable reason why large projects fail to deliver on time and on budget. That reason is poor project management. We see it every day.
(PM-1745) Automated Tracking and Control of Road Construction using Sensor-Aided GPS
Primary Author: Mr Magdy Ibrahim Concordia University
Co-author(s): Dr Osama El Sayed Moselhi P Eng Concordia University
Abstract: Efficient use of heavy construction equipment is important to contractors for successful delivery of road/ highway construction projects. Continues monitoring of equipment's location and their operating conditions are required to predict their performance and whether they are operating according to plan and if any corrective action is needed. This paper presents a novel sensor-aided GPS system capable of monitoring and capturing the necessary information, in near realtime, for project tracking and control. It consists of a microcontroller equipped with GPS receiver, radio frequency (RF) communication module and a number of sensors. The system is able to locate equipment on site and their associated activities using GPS data and RF proximity detection algorithm. The algorithm converts the collected data to produce two types of near real-time control data: progress and productivity. The use of sensors for extracting weather conditions and operating conditions provides valuable information for enhanced productivity analysis and forecasting the status of construction operations. A simulated case study is presented to illustrate the system capabilities and suitability for management of road construction.
(PM-1749) Commercial approach in Contract Administration
Primary Author: Mr Ravichandran Chidambaram CCP Higgs & Hill Qatar WLL
Abstract: Globally, securing a new contract is getting increasingly complex as the competition level is very significant. Thereafter, accomplishing a reasonable profit at the end of the project by any construction companies has become a major challenge and it depends on the endless endeavors that company needs to excercise.
While administrating the contract, commercial approach formulates the systematic methods and procedures in contract document submissions and substantiating our entitlements completely by providing all necessary and appropriate comprehensive analysis. This will facilitate approving authorities to process our submissions faster and easier and create a way to get our entitlements at an earlier date. More emphasis is given on the practical methods of creating commercial awareness among the project team by fruitful interactions, individual job position responsibilities and the necessity for collective efforts. This awareness created, makes the company stronger by its techno commercial expertise.
Furthermore, commercial approach developes Team working and transparent systems which brings the Employer, Engineer, Contractor and Subcontractors together for the successful overall completion of the project.